A medical intern who misdiagnosed patients (including mistakenly identifying a patient as deceased), prescribed inappropriate medications or incorrect dosages, and who was “extremely argumentative” with his supervisors and co-workers was unable to perform the essential functions of his job and therefore, according to the 4th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, was not a qualified individual with a disability for purposes of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Shin v. Univ. of Maryland Medical System Corporation, 4th Circ., No. 09-1126, March 11, 2010.
Frank Shin, M.D., began a medical internship with the University of Maryland Medical System Corporation (UMMSC) in June of 2006. He initially performed his duties in a satisfactory manner, scoring 8 out of 10 for overall competence. However, after the first month, Dr. Shin’s scores began to fall, and by August, his overall rating was 3 out of 10. Further, at that point, Shin had to be “shadowed heavily” by resident doctors, in order to prevent medical errors. Shin’s workload subsequently was decreased to three patients, but support of other residents was still necessary.
Shin’s falling performance ratings prompted a face-to-face meeting with his supervisor to address the issues. At that meeting, an action plan was developed, further reducing Shin’s patient load to two, and requiring him to interact frequently with others who supported him. When after two weeks, Shin’s performance deteriorated further, he was urged to contact the Employee Assistance Program. On September 1, 2006, Shin was put on probation, and was required to meet certain criteria to remain in the internship program. Shin’s overall competence scores failed to improve during probation, with one of his supervising doctors noting that Shin was “should no longer be allowed to continue in a direct patient care role.”
UMMSC made assistance available to Shin by allowing him to see fewer patients with less complex medical issues, by asking residents to help with Shin’s workload, and by excusing Shin from participating in certain internship program requirements. Despite this assistance, Shin continued to have problems and ultimately was diagnosed with ADD with “significant impairment in visual-spatial reasoning and visual memory.” Although Shin sought expert help, in March 2007, his own doctor determined that Shin had reached maximum medical improvement, but was unfit to return to work as an intern. UMMSC then terminated Shin’s employment. That termination was upheld after an internal appeal procedure held in June 2007.
Dr. Shin ultimately filed a lawsuit against UMMSC and Dr. Wolfsthal under the ADA, alleging discriminatory discharge, and failure to provide a reasonable accommodation. The district court granted summary judgment in favor of the defendants. That decision was upheld by the Fourth Circuit. (Note that the Fourth Circuit reviewed the case under the “old” ADA, because the ADA Amendments Act, which took effect on January 1, 2009, was not applied retroactively.)
For both wrongful termination and failure to accommodate claims, a plaintiff must establish that he or she was a “qualified individual with a disability” in order to be eligible for the protections offered under the ADA. That Act defines a “qualified” individual as someone with a disability who, “with or without reasonable accommodation, can perform the essential functions of the employment position that such individual holds or desires.” Therefore, in order to survive a motion for summary judgment, Shin had to show not only that he was disabled, but that he qualified for the protections of the ADA.
To prove that he was qualified, Shin had to show that he was able to fulfil the essential functions of his job. Those essential functions, in essence, were “to provide competent medical care to patients with efficiency and reasonable autonomy.” The available evidence and testimony clearly indicated various problems and concerns related to Shin’s performance of those functions. The Court held that Shin was unable to perform the essential functions of his job and, therefore, that he was not qualified to bring a lawsuit under the ADA. The Court went a step further, and addressed Shin’s claim that he would have been “qualified” had UMMSC provided certain requested accommodation, including a permanent reduction in the number of patients for whom Shin was responsible. According to the Court, the ADA does not require an employer to assign an employee to “permanent light duty” or to reallocate job duties in order to change the essential functions of a job. On that basis, the Court held that no reasonable jury could conclude that a reduced work load was a reasonable accommodation under these facts.
According to the Fourth Circuit, Dr. Shin was not a qualified individual with a disability for purposes of the ADA – because he was not able to perform the essential function of his job – and his requested accommodations were unreasonable under the circumstances. Therefore, Shin was unable to support his claims under the ADA. With many hospital systems moving to an “employment” model for physicians, it is critically important that hospital administrators and managers understand the employment-law implications of actions involving individuals in protected categories, and understand that ADA claims typically must be reviewed on a case-by-case basis.