Under certain circumstances, 42 U.S.C. §1981 (Section 1981) creates a federal cause of action for individuals claiming intentional racial discrimination. To support such a claim, a plaintiff must allege that he is a member of a racial minority, and that he was discriminated against within a particular group of activities set forth in the statute. Those activities include the right to “make and enforce contracts . . . as is enjoyed by white citizens.” The 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeal recently dismissed the claims of a physician who claimed that the suspension of his medical staff privileges violated rights protected by Section 1981, holding that such privileges did not constitute contractual rights as defined by the statute. Jimenez v. Wellstar Health System, 11th Cir., No. 09-10917, February 18, 2010.
Dr. Omar F. Jimenez, an African-American physician with a specialty in neurosurgery, held medical staff privileges at Wellstar Health System in the state of Georgia. In January 2006, Jimenez was asked to appear before Wellstar Surgery Department’s Medical Care Evaluation Committee to address a number of complaints received by the Committee regarding Jimenez’ medical performance. The complaints included allegations that Jimenez had failed to respond promptly to emergency room calls, had failed to make patient rounds in a timely manner, and had failed to manage certain surgeries appropriately. Based on those allegations, Wellstar suspended Jimenez’ medical staff privileges, which meant that Jimenez was precluded from treating patients at Wellstar’s hospitals. Although Jimenez initially requested a hearing on the suspension, a year went by within which no hearing was held, for reasons for reasons not explained in the Court’s opinion. At that point, Jimenez withdrew his request.
Jimenez ultimately filed a federal law suit, including a claim under Section 1981 alleging race discrimination based upon contractual rights. He claimed that Wellstar discriminated against him when it suspended his privileges and when it delayed a hearing on that suspension, and that those privileges established a contract between Jimenez and Wellstar. The district court dismissed the lawsuit for Jimenez’ “failure to state a claim,” and the case was appealed. The Eleventh Circuit upheld the dismissal, finding that the suspension of Jimenez’ medical staff privileges did not violate rights protected under Section 1981.
Wellstar’s policies include specific language that membership on the system’s medical staff “does not create a contractual relationship between Wellstar or any Medical Staff and the Medical Staff Member.” In addition, medical staff members at Wellstar must meet certain minimum objective criteria, and failure to do so can result in automatic termination of medical staff privileges, which runs counter to a typical contractual relationship. Importantly, under Georgia state law, medical staff bylaws do not create a per se contractual right to the continuation of medical staff privileges. According to the Court, interpreting the bylaws as a contract in Jimenez’ case would run counter to the state’s policy of allowing a hospital to suspend or withhold privileges from doctors that it believes are unqualified to serve on its medical staff. Therefore, Jimenez did not the possess the contractual relationship necessary to support his Section 1981 claim.
It is noteworthy that because Jimenez was not an employee of Wellstar, he was unable to base his claim for racial discrimination on Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the federal “anti-discrimination” statute which prohibits race and national origin discrimination (as well as gender and religious discrimination) by employers against employees. Had Jimenez been a direct employee of the hospital system, the fact that his medical staff privileges did not constitute a contract would not have precluded a federal claim by Jimenez, because Title VII would have been available to him. Health care providers that are moving toward an employment model with physician staff members should take this issue into consideration and should assure that managers and supervisors are trained to recognize and resolve complaints of discrimination when they arise, in order to avoid legal liability under Title VII, regardless of whether Section 1981 applies.